UMBRIA - Economy
An economic structure composed of micro-undertakings
The region's economy is dominated by the services sector, producing 69% of total value-added in 2000 (13% for distributive trades), while industry and agriculture generate approximately 28% and 3% respectively. The present economic structure emerged from a series of transformations which took place mainly in the 1970s and 1980s. During this period there was rapid expansion among small and medium-sized firms and a gradual retrenchment among the large firms which had hitherto characterised the region's industrial base. This process of structural adjustment is still going on.
Tobacco and wine, typical Umbrian products
In addition to the usual Italian products, Umbrian agriculture is noted for its tobacco and its vineyards, which produce excellent wines such as Orvieto, Torgiano and Rosso di Montefalco. Another typical Umbrian product is the black truffle found in Valnerina, an area that produces 45% of this product in Italy. At the 5th General Census (October 2000) more than 57 thousand agricultural enterprises were registered in Umbria, with a total area of 642 492 hectars. Compared to the previous census in 1990, there was a decrease in the number of agricultural enterprises of 2.4%.
The food industry in Umbria produces processed pork-meats, confectionery, pasta and the traditional products of Valnerina in preserved form (truffles, lentils, cheese). The other main industries are textiles, clothing, sportswear, iron and steel, chemicals and ornamental ceramics.
The foreign trade balance in 2001 was positive in the region of Umbria, with exports amounting to around 2.4 million EUR and imports in value of about 1.7 million EUR. Compared to the previous year, imports have increased by 8.1% in the province of Perugia and have decreased by 11.6 in the province of Terni. Exports have shown the same trend in the two provinces: a 6.8% increase in the province of Perugia and a 4.7 decrease in the province of Terni.
For centuries Umbria has been cut off from the major lines of communication, and even today the region's two major axes, the Autostrada del Sole and the Rome-Florence railway, only skirt the edges of the region. East-west communications are even more inadequate.
More than 200 thousand passengers transited on the navigation line of Lake Trasimeno in 2001, corresponding to 1.3% more compared to 2000. The majority of passengers, however, were registered during the months of July and August.
The number of transport enterprises was of 2 889 in 2001, approximately the same figure as the previous year. Of these enterprises, 78.9% were registered in the province of Perugia.